What are HMOs?
Human milk oligosaccharides (pronounced ol·i·go·sac·cha·rides) are unique, non-digestible, complex carbohydrates with a prebiotic role; in other words they feed the healthy bacteria in our gut. They are the third most abundant component in breast milk (after fat and carbohydrate) and make up to 10 percent of breast milk. There's even more HMO than protein.
"HMOs feed the beneficial bacteria in the gut where 70 percent of a baby's immune system is found," according to Rachael Buck, Ph.D., an Abbott research scientist and expert in immune health. "But what's very special about HMOs is that they are also absorbed into the bloodstream. This is how they support the immune system beyond the gut," she explains.
There are 150 different types of HMOs and the most abundant one in most mothers' milk is 2'-Fucosyllactose or 2'-FL. As well as its prebiotic role, 2'-FL HMO is beneficial for babies' gut and immune system development.
After researching HMOs for more than a decade, in 2010, Abbott scientists made a breakthrough and decided to focus their attention on the most abundant HMO, 2'-FL. Since then, Abbott has published more than 20 pre-clinical and clinical studies on 2'-FL HMO.
In 2016, Abbott researchers compared the immune response of exclusively breastfed babies to that of babies who were exclusively fed formula with and without a structurally identical version of the 2'-FL HMO found in human milk.
After six weeks, researchers discovered that five immune markers were nearly identical between babies who were breastfed and those who were fed Similac with 2'-FL HMO.
The clinical study, published in the Journal of Nutrition, showed that infants fed Similac infant formula supplemented with 2'-FL HMO had the prebiotic in their blood and urine similar to breast fed infants and the same rate of growth as breastfed infants.
"These are ground-breaking results because they show that babies fed the infant formula have an immune response more like breastfed infants," Buck explains. "2'FL HMO helps support a baby's immune system because it helps close multiple gaps in immune function between formula-fed and breastfed babies."
Abbott was the first company in the world to launch an infant formula with 2'-FL HMO. Adding HMO* to the formula brings it closer to breast milk than ever before.
A Healthy Gut
Not only do HMOs support the entire body's immune system by starting in the gut, they may also directly affect gut health. In fact, a study by Abbott shows that the HMOs support baby's developing digestive system.
Nothing can replace breast milk, but for moms who cannot or choose not to breastfeed, or those who need to supplement, an infant formula with 2'-FL HMO is one step closer to closing the gap.
"We want to give parents choices and ensure that even formula babies have the strongest possible start in life," Buck says.
* not from human milk