The Power of Human Milk Oligosaccharides

he Power of Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Infant Nutrition

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Human milk oligosaccharides are beneficial prebiotics that can nourish your baby's immune system

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MAY. 03, 2018  4 MINUTE READ

With a perfect blend of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and other components that support a baby's immune system, breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition. And within this nutritional powerhouse, there's an unsung hero—human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Based on nearly two decades of research, experts believe that it could be one of the factors behind breast milk's immune system-supporting properties.

Until now, human milk oligosaccharides have only been found in breast milk, but thanks to Abbott's cutting-edge research, even moms who choose to use formula can provide their babies with them too. 

What are HMOs?

Human milk oligosaccharides (pronounced ol·i·go·sac·cha·rides) are unique, non-digestible, complex carbohydrates with a prebiotic role; in other words they feed the healthy bacteria in our gut. They are the third most abundant component in breast milk (after fat and carbohydrate) and make up to 10 percent of breast milk. There's even more HMO than protein.

"HMOs feed the beneficial bacteria in the gut where 70 percent of a baby's immune system is found," according to Rachael Buck, Ph.D., an Abbott research scientist and expert in immune health. "But what's very special about HMOs is that they are also absorbed into the bloodstream. This is how they support the immune system beyond the gut," she explains.

There are 150 different types of HMOs and the most abundant one in most mothers' milk is 2'-Fucosyllactose or 2'-FL. As well as its prebiotic role, 2'-FL HMO is beneficial for babies' gut and immune system development.

Breakthrough research

After researching HMOs for more than a decade, in 2010, Abbott scientists made a breakthrough and decided to focus their attention on the most abundant HMO, 2'-FL. Since then, Abbott has published more than 20 pre-clinical and clinical studies on 2'-FL HMO.

In 2016, Abbott researchers compared the immune response of exclusively breastfed babies to that of babies who were exclusively fed formula with and without a structurally identical version of the 2'-FL HMO found in human milk.

After six weeks, researchers discovered that five immune markers were nearly identical between babies who were breastfed and those who were fed Similac with 2'-FL HMO.

The clinical study, published in the Journal of Nutrition, showed that infants fed Similac infant formula supplemented with 2'-FL HMO had the prebiotic in their blood and urine similar to breast fed infants and the same rate of growth as breastfed infants.

"These are ground-breaking results because they show that babies fed the infant formula have an immune response more like breastfed infants," Buck explains. "2'FL HMO helps support a baby's immune system because it helps close multiple gaps in immune function between formula-fed and breastfed babies."

Abbott was the first company in the world to launch an infant formula with 2'-FL HMO. Adding HMO* to the formula brings it closer to breast milk than ever before.

A Healthy Gut

Not only do HMOs support the entire body's immune system by starting in the gut, they may also directly affect gut health. In fact, a study by Abbott shows that the HMOs support baby's developing digestive system.

Nothing can replace breast milk, but for moms who cannot or choose not to breastfeed, or those who need to supplement, an infant formula with 2'-FL HMO is one step closer to closing the gap.

"We want to give parents choices and ensure that even formula babies have the strongest possible start in life," Buck says.

* not from human milk

First Solid Foods for Baby: Developmental Signs and Milestones to Look For

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A man feeds solid foods to a baby sitting in a highchair.


One of the most exciting parts of caring for your baby is watching them grow and reach new milestones right before your eyes. They'll develop an appetite for and interest in solid foods during their first year of life. Your job, during this exciting journey together, is not only to guide their nutrition but also to decode their unique language of cues — a symphony of expressions, gestures and coos in reaction to these new sensations.

Formula Preparation: What You Need to Know

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A person holds a baby in their arms and feeds them a bottle of formula.


Breast milk is considered the gold standard, but some parents can’t or choose not to breastfeed, while others rely on both formula and breastfeeding. Those who use formula should know how to make a baby bottle to keep their baby healthy. It's simple, but important to carefully follow the label instructions. Questions about feeding your child should be directed to a healthcare professional.


Learn about HMOs, unique prebiotics in breast milk.

Eat a variety of foods to support gut health.



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